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PubMed Central. We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates ly isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC were within the ranges of 0. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L.

The therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. In vitro anti-listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola heckel seeds. Summary Studies on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus intermedius from dog and cat, and also on Staphylococcus aureus from wound and pyoderma infections, have shown a correlation between the site of microbial infection and antimicrobial susceptibility. Both the methanolic extract concentrate of Garcinia kola Heckel seeds and natural honey have been associated with activity on bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infections.

In this study, selected bacteria belonging to genera from burn wound infection sites were treated with natural honey and methanolic extract concentrate of Garcinia kola in antimicrobial susceptibility tests separately and in combined form, and also with gentamicin and methanol as controls. The two natural products were found to be active on the bacterial isolates, excluding Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, all of which showed resistance to honey. Combination forms of the two natural products were active only on the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Though the antimicrobial activity of the two natural products tested had been ly reported against microbial agents of respiratory tract infection, it was also recorded in this study.

The lack of activity of each of the three honey types used in this study against the Klebsiella pneumoniae strains tested underscores the need to exclude this organism from burn wound infections before embarking on treatment with honey. The sensitivity of one high-level gentamicin-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to honey and Garcinia kola seed extract was noteworthy considering the therapeutic failures of gentamicin. Garcinia kola seeds may prevent cognitive and motor dysfunctions in a type 1 diabetes mellitus rat model partly by mitigating neuroinflammation. Background We reported recently that extracts of seeds of Garcinia kolaa plant with established hypoglycemic properties, prevented the loss of inflammation-sensible neuronal populations like Purkinje cells in a rat model of type 1 diabetes mellitus T1DM.

Here, we assessed G. Methods Rats made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were Lady wants sex GA Sycamore 31790 daily with either vehicle solution diabetic control groupinsulin, or G. Then, cognitive and motor functions were assessed using holeboard and vertical pole behavioral tests, and animals were sacrificed.

Brains were dissected out, cut, and processed for Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. Hyperglycemia Similar, expressions of inflammation markers tumor necrosis factor TNFiba1 CD68and Glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAPas well as decreases of neuronal density in regions involved in cognitive and motor functions Conclusions Our indicate that T1DM-like functional alterations are mediated, at least partly, by neuroinflammation and neuronal loss in this model.

The prevention of the development of such alterations by early treatment with G. Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis. Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing of knee osteoarthritis KOA patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAID treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine.

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Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of mg of G. patients were recruited, 84 The onset of G. In Alzheimer's disease AD basal forebrain cholinergic neurons appear to be targeted primarily in early stages of the disease.

Scopolamine muscarinic receptor antagonist has been used for decades to induce working and reference memory impairment in rodents.

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Five minutes post-scopolamine injection, memory function was assessed using the Y-maze or Morris water maze tests MWM in rats. Scopolamine injection induced deficit P Garcinia kola aqueous suspension prevents cerebellar neurodegeneration in long-term diabetic rat - a type 1 diabetes mellitus model.

The development of compounds able to improve metabolic syndrome and mitigate complications caused by inappropriate glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus is challenging.

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The medicinal plant with established hypoglycemic properties Garcinia kola Heckel might have the potential to mitigate diabetes mellitus metabolic syndrome and complications. We have investigated the neuroprotective properties of a suspension of G. Wistar rats, made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin were monitored for 8 months. Then, they were administered with distilled water or G. Body weight and glycemia were determined before and after treatment. After sacrifice, cerebella were dissected out and processed for stereological quantification of Purkinje cells.

Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of markers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration were performed. Purkinje cell counts were ificantly increased, and histopathological s of apoptosis and neuroinflammation decreased, in diabetic animals treated with G. Glycemia was also markedly improved and body weight Lady wants sex GA Sycamore 31790 to non-diabetic control values, following G.

These suggest that G. All rights reserved. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola and a snack nut Anacardium occidentale. The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. The total amino acids were The percentage total essential amino acids were Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were The calculated isoelectric points were 2.

While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. The percentage cystine Cys levels in the total sulphur amino acid were The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. Comparative effects of vitamin E and kolaviron a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola on carbon tetrachloride-induced renal oxidative damage in mice.

It became evident in this study that carbon tetrachloride CCl4can induce renal oxidative damage. The hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E Vit. E and kolaviron KVa biflavonoid complex from the seeds of Garcinia kola are well documented. The present study was deed to investigate and compare the renal protective effects of Vit. E and KV in mice given CCl4 1. Treatment with KV at and mg kg -1 and Vit. E at mg kg -1 ificantly p 0. This study found KV unable to protect against CCl4-induced renal damage but confirmed the potency of Vit. E to enhance recovery from renal oxidative damage.

Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus F. Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no ificant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment.

The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal Lady wants sex GA Sycamore 31790 on both C. The mortality of C. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an "oversized" fruit, Garcinia benthamii. The largest fruits found in tropical forests may depend on complementary seed dispersal strategies. These fruits are dispersed most effectively by megafauna, but populations can persist where megafauna are absent or erratic visitors. Smaller animals often consume these large fruits, but their capacity to disperse these seeds effectively has rarely been assessed.

We evaluated the contributions of gibbons Hylobates lar and other frugivores in the seed dispersal of the megafaunal fruit Garcinia benthamii, using the SDE seed dispersal effectiveness landscape. Gibbons preferentially consumed G. Recruitment of seedlings from gibbon-dispersed seeds was also very low. Elephants consumed G. We suggest that gibbons might complement the seed dispersal role of elephants for G. Fruit availability varied between years; when availability was low, gibbons reliably consumed most of the crop and dispersed some seeds that established seedlings, albeit at low s 2.

When fruit availability was high, the fruit supply overwhelmed the gibbons and other arboreal frugivores, ensuring a large abundance of fruit available to terrestrial seed dispersers. Although gibbons effectively dispersed more seeds at these times Complementary seed dispersal strategies may be important for megafaunal fruit, because they ensure that very large fruits are able to benefit from megafaunal dispersal but also persist where this dispersal becomes erratic. However, our data suggest that smaller seed dispersers might not be.

Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid. Recently, considerable attention has been focused on dietary and medicinal phytochemicals that inhibit, reverse or retard diseases caused by oxidative and inflammatory processes. Vernonia amygdalina is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family. Extracts of the plant have been used in various folk medicines as remedies against helminthic, protozoal and bacterial infections with scientific support for these claims. Phytochemicals such as saponins and alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, xanthones, anthraquinones, edotides and sesquiterpenes have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina.

These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer chemoprevention. It is used locally to treat illnesses like colds, bronchitis, bacterial and viral infections and liver diseases. A of useful phytochemicals have been isolated from the seed and the most prominent of them is the Garcinia bioflavonoids mixture called kolaviron.

It has well-defined structure and an array of biological activities including Lady wants sex GA Sycamore 31790, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties. The chemopreventive properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoids have been attributed to their abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors.

African crocus Curculigo pilosa and wonderful kola Buchholzia coriacea seeds modulate critical enzymes relevant to erectile dysfunction and oxidative stress. Background The seeds of African crocus AC Curculigo pilosa and wonderful kola WK Buchholzia coriacea are commonly used in folklore medicine in managing erectile dysfunction ED without the full understanding of the possible mechanism of actions.

This study investigated and compared the effects of aqueous extracts from the seeds of AC and WK on arginase and acetylcholinesterase AChE activities and some pro-oxidant [FeSO4 and sodium nitroprusside SNP ]-induced lipid peroxidation in rat penile homogenate in vitro. Furthermore, phenolic constituents of the extract were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector HPLC-DAD.

AC had higher arginase inhibitory and antioxidative activities but lower AChE inhibitory properties when compared with WK. Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seedginger, rosemary, gotu kolaand ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone. The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seedginger, rosemary, gotu kolaand ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined.

Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument 4. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products.

The superdeep well of the Kola Peninsula. The structure of continental crusts is a subject of ever increasing importance in the geological sciences. Over 15 years ago, Soviet scientist began drilling a superdeep well on the Kola Peninsula near Murmansk.

The well has reached a depth of 12 km and is thereby the deepest well in the world, yielding a vast amount of information on the structure of the continental crust. The geological, geophysical and technological data from the Kola well were initially published in a monographic entitled ''Kol'skaja sverchglubokaja''.

This English translation makes the available to non-Soviet scientists as well. New cholinesterase inhibitors from Garcinia atroviridis. A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A 1 and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A 2 have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis Clusiaceaecollected in Peninsular Malaysia.

Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge. Garcinia is a plant under the family of Clusiaceae that is commonly used as a flavouring agent.

Various phytochemicals including flavonoids and organic acid have been identified in this plant. Besides, it also helps to enhance fat oxidation while reducing de novo lipogenesis. Among all types of organic acids, hydroxycitric acid or more specifically - -hydroxycitric acid has been identified as a potential supplement for weight management and as antiobesity agent. Non-toxic melanin production inhibitors from Garcinia livingstonei Clusiaceae. The stem bark of Garcinia livingstonei is used traditionally as a skin lightening agent.

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